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A Brief Introduction of Assam

Social history of Assam   The pain and sorrow of Assam         PREEPAK
Economy of Assam   Some General Information aboutAssam         RPF
What is ULFA?   Deployment of Indian Occupation Forces         TPDF
Human Rights   Transportation          
SevenSistersRegion   Education          
Newsletter   Religion          




The Motor Tyres seen in the picture are not for Car driving .
These are for Firing purpose of Dead Bodies kept one
upon another those killed brutally by the
Indian Occupation Forces in Assam.


Assam is situated between the parallels of 24088" and 27010" North longitude and 89042" and 96010" East latitude. Assam is bounded by Bhutan and Arunachal in the north; Nagaland and Manipur in the east; Bangladesh , Meghalaya , Tripura and Mizoram in the south and India in the west. The land of Assam consists of valleys and hills and mighty rivers like the Brahmaputra and Barak. Assam has a geographical area of 78,529 square kilometers.


The fertile land of Assam is enormously sufficient to produce abundant quantity of agro-products. Tea, rice, pulses, oilseed, jute etc. are rich cash crops. Assam is also rich in mineral resources like oil, coal, limestone natural gas etc. The wild life sanctuaries like Manas, Kaziranga, Pabitara etc, are the home of endangered species like one-horned rhinoceros.


The society of Assam with the total population of 25 millions can be categorized into three parts: 1. The Assamese society developed through the historical assimilation of different human races in the course of habitation in the same area from unknown times.

2. The indigenous tribal society who preserves their own identity till now, staying outside the periphery of the historical assimilation of different human races.

The peoples who are historically assimilated from different human races and those peoples who stayed outside the assimilation are the indigenous inhabitants of Assam.

3. The foreigners migrated from the Indian sub-continent after 1947 for different reasons.

The pain and sorrow of Assam

The 25 million peoples of Assam are the descendents of those forerunners who migrated into Assam in different historical times in separate groups of different human races. Amongst them are the Austrics (the Karbis), the Mongoloids ( the Kirats), the Caucasians (the Aryans) and the Drabirs (the Kaibartas and Banias). Here the society is painted with the history of assimilation and union and the tradition of different social-cultural factors. Assam, presently under the occupation of Indian rule, was independent from the ancient times. The peoples have been attaining in struggle in different crucial historical moments against foreign invader to keep alive their independent entity. They defended their independence successfully resisting the invasions of the mighty Mughals seventeen times. However, consequent to the Yandaboo Treaty signed between Man (Burma now Myanmar) and British on 24 February 1826, Assam ultimately became a British colony. After that the peoples engaged in struggle against the British to restore the lost independence. At that time the 'liberation struggle of Assam' was united with the Indian freedom struggle under the principle of 'line of united struggle'. Assam should have established an independent state, just after the British left the South Asian continent, like the establishment of independent countries such as India, Pakistan and Myanmar. However, the British- created leadership of independent India turned Assam into a colony of India through intrigue and conspiracy. So Assam became dependent again. From then the ruling class of India started indirect colonial exploitation with the help of foreign multinational corporations over and above their direct ruthless colonial exploitation. Now the people of Assam has become enfoebled, being seized by these two tired exploitations. All the industries, industrial products and the markets came under the control of the colonial ruling class. As a result, the strategy of annihilation of nation began. Services, industries and the markets are packed with foreigners deceiving the indigenous people. They have encouraged illegal migration of millions of Indian and non-Indian foreigners into Assam and rehabilitated them. This has turned the people of Assam into street-beggars and minority in their own country. They have fabricated a portion of the foreigners as the representative of indigenous people of Assam enthroning them at Delhi and Dispur as 'Member of Parliament' and 'Member of Legislative Assembly'. The ruling class has handicapped the languages, society and culture of Assam with the help of service-expecting education system and other publicity media. They have made the self-dependent productive power of general peasantry standstill, keeping the agriculture process in underdeveloped condition and the flood problem alive sans providing any permanent solution to it. They have made acute the unemployment problem of the educated, semi-educated and non-educated. Corruption, black marketing and depravity have utterly disgraced the social life of Assam. This has become a threat to our national identity. These are the pain and sorrow of the society of Assam. Above all, the Indian ruling class is executing the strategy of "divide and destroy" by instigating group conflicts.

The non violent struggles of the Assamese peoples to emancipate themselves from the above mentioned colonial problems have faced the steam-roller of undemocratic repression and torture of India in the name of slogans like 'united India', 'we are all Indians', and the law and constitution of India. The peoples of Assam have been suffering from the distress of mind due to the ruthless repression and torture of the Indian State. The peoples having been deprived of fundamental human and legal rights have lost their confidence totally in the non-violent struggle. As a result, another historical moment has arrived in front of the dependent indigenous people of Assam - in this moment the only alternative way for salvation of the peoples of Assam is the way of 'armed national liberation struggle'. So the 'UNITED LIBERATION FRONT OF ASOM' (ULFA), the vanguard of national liberation struggle in Assam, was formed on 7th April 1979 to bear the historic responsibility of spearheading the armed democratic struggle with the ultimate aim of establishing an independent socialist sovereign Assam.


Some General Information about Assam

Area of Assam 78 3,287sq.kms.

Assam Year Units
Population 1991 25 846 Millions
Population growth per annum % 1981-91 2.2 2.1
Urbanisation % 1991 11.1 26
Infant mortality per '000 births 1991 81 80
Literacy rate % 1991 52.9 52
Net State Domestic Product (SDP) Rs.crore 1991-92 9,562 489,277
Per cap. State Domestic Product Rupees 1991-92 4,230 5,781
Growth in Real per cap. SDP % p.a. 1980-92 4.3 3.0
Share of agriculture in SDP % 1988-89 42 34
Share of industry in SDP % 1988-89 22 26
Share of services in SDP % 1988-89 35 40
Foodgrain production ' 000 tns. 1990-93 3,423 173,140
Per capita foodgrain production kgs. 1990-93 149 201
Yield of foodgrains kgs/hectare 1990-93 1,252 1,388
Number of factories numbers 1989-90 1,585 107,992
Value of output from manufacturing Rs.crore 1989-90 2,981 230,659
Value added from manufacturing Rs.crore 1989-90 749 43,373
Consumption of commercial energy '000 ton 1992-93 1,905 200,321
Power generation GWH 1992-93 1,070 300,989
Power consumption GWH 1992-93 2,040 279,824
Railway route length / '000 kms. 1992-93 31.45 19.01
Road length / '000 kms. 1987-88 820 544
Number of bank offices numbers Mar 1994 1,226 61,852
Bank offices per lakh population numbers Mar 1994 5.1 6.9
Per capita bank deposits Rupees Mar 1994 1,280 3,562


Deployment of India Occupation Forces
in the Seven Sister Region of Southeast Asia:

Formation Placement

1.Eastern Command Calcutta (William Fort):

(a) 4th Corps Tezour (Assam) (b) 33rd Corps Rangapahar (Dimapur) 4th Corps (a) 2nd Mountain Division Dinjan (Dibrugarh) (b) 21st Mountain Division Rangia (Kampur) (c) 5th Mountain Division Tenga Valley (Arunachal) 33rd Corps (a) 8th Mountain Division Imphal (Manipur) (b) 57th Mountain Division Nasimpur (Silchar)

Air base:

1. Nadua (Dibrugarh District) 2. Raraya (Jorhat) 3. Garoimari (Sonitpur) Areas and others deployment 1. 101 area (Shillong) 2. 51 Sub-area (Narengi) 3. Sub-area (Jorhat)

(A). The Head Quarter of Assam Regiment situated at Shilong (B). The counter-insurgency Training School situated at Varengti (Mizoram)

Para Military Forces

1.Assam rifles (HQ) Shillong) 2.CRPF Group HQ(Gauhati and Rangapahar) 3. Border Security Force (Regional HQ, Panbari)



In March 1992, there were 65,605 kilometers of road maintained by the PWD.

There were 2,033 kilometers of national highway in 1990. There were 352,874 motor vehicles in the state in 1994-95.


The route kilometer of railways in 1994-95 was 2,362 kilometers.

Civil Aviation

Daily scheduled flights connect the principal towns with the rest of India. There are airports at Guwahati, Tezpur, Jorhat, North Lakhimpur, Silchar and Dibrugarh.


Water transport is important in Lower Assam, the main waterway being Brahamaputra river.


In 1991, 52.89% of the population was literate (61.89% of men and 43.03% of women).

In 1995-96 there were 30,140 primary/ junior basic schools with 3,816,603 students, 7,237 middle / senior basic schools with 1,304,504 students , and 3,980 high / higher secondary schools with 618,146 students.

There were 245 colleges for general education, 6 medical colleges (including dental and Ayurvedic), 3 engineering, 1 agricultural, 22 teacher-training colleges and a fisheries college. There were five universities: Assam Agricultural University, Jorhat; Dibrugarh University with 86 colleges and 55,982 students; Gauhati University with 128 colleges and 80,363 students (92-93), and two central universities at Silchar and Tezpur.

In 1994-95 there were 147 hospitals (13,103 beds), 656 primary health centers and 335 dispensaries.


According to the 1991 census,

                                        Religion Population
                                        Hindus numbered 15,047,293
                                        Muslims 6,373,204
                                        Christians 744,367
                                        Buddhist 64,008
                                        Jains 20,645
                                        Sikhs 21,910


Published By- Publicity Department, ULFA .